Rare beyblade qr codes
Amex Platinum Cashback Card - Get £35 cashback when approved
2023.03.24 13:48 rasbraa Amex Platinum Cashback Card - Get £35 cashback when approved
In case you have been living under a rock, American Express offers the best Cashback and Reward cards in the UK.
I personally I’m not a fan of “points”, and prefer hard cold cash in my pocket, which is exactly what the American Express Cashback Card gives you.
For a limited time, Amex have increased the sign-on bonus to £35 for new approved customers (it’s normally £25).
As a new customer, you’ll be able to earn 5% cashback in the first 3 months on any purchase you make (up to a maximum of £125). After the first 3 months you’ll earn a rate of 0.75% on anything you spend up to £10,000 and a higher rate of 1.25% of anything you spend above £10,000.
So if you spend £10,000 on your card in the next 12 months, and £2,500 of which in the next 3 months, you’ll get just over £180 in cashback, doing absolutely eff all! Add the £35 sign-on bonus on top of that, and you got yourself a return flight to Rome and some change for a pizza in Piazza Navona!
Of course - the more you spend on your card, the greater the cash back. I slap everything I can on the card, including food shopping, petrol, Amazon purchases, you name it! For those online shops that don’t accept Amex directly, you can often use PayPal instead, where you link your card to your PayPal account and - congrats! You beat the system and earned even more!
I have had my card for nearly 10 years now, and nothing beats getting back a few £100s every 12 months for just using my card as I’d use any other card!
I’d love for you to use my referral code
(full disclosure - I will receive £50) Non-Referral Link
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2023.03.24 13:47 Fred_Is_Dead_Again Seriously?
"Speeds up to 5Mbps" fiber for $55.00/month? I got this from scanning in a QR code for newly installed fiber. WTF? I want to fire Comcast, but seriously?
submitted by Fred_Is_Dead_Again
to ATT [link] [comments]
2023.03.24 13:46 UCFknight01 Can someone please send me the link/QR code that is currently above the John C. Hitt Library? Thank you in advance! Charge On! ⚡️🔛
submitted by UCFknight01 to ucf [link] [comments]
2023.03.24 13:41 8000will Rare Sonic Boom DLC (Anyone have an unused code for it for Wii U?)
2023.03.24 13:29 Adventurous_Country8 Selling Dark Bull Nib
2023.03.24 13:26 itsdirector The New Species 31
Subject: Staff Sergeant Power
Description: Mammalian humanoid, no tail. 6'2" (1.87 m) avg height. 185 lbs (84 kg) avg weight. 170 year life expectancy.
Ship: USSS Liberty
Location: Alpha Centauri
I woke at around 0400, ready and raring to start my day. I'd gone to sleep at zero balls thirty, which meant that I got to sleep in. Nice. One of the best parts of being a gen-alt is not needing much sleep. I'd heard that the researchers who created the project actually estimated that we would need MORE sleep, and were shocked when the opposite was the case.
Nowadays there are sleep studies that are trying to prove that sleep is only necessary for children, and the only reason that adults sleep is that it's addictive. Very addictive, complete with withdrawal symptoms. I don't know where I stand on this hypothesis, but the Marine corps has taught me that you can end up facing those "withdrawal symptoms" at any moment. So it's best to catch your forty winks whenever you can.
The current record for unassisted wakefulness is 30 days, after researchers realized that the reason that chronic insomniacs were dying was due to their underlying diseases. There still hasn't been a case of someone being awake to death. The lady who went 30 days ended up getting bored and taking a nap. That nap lasted for 48 hours, though. Don't know what that means for the hypothesis.
Honestly, the technical stuff is a bit above my pay grade. Whenever I try to talk about stuff like this to people who actually know about it I get embarrassed by my lack of knowledge. I should stick to 'pull trigger, make dead'. On the other hand, I'm going to have to retire eventually. I've got one more rank and everything after that is deskwork and terribly hard to get. Plus once you get gunny you get a pretty sweet severance package that includes life-time pay.
That plus my gen-alt lifetime pay will make it to where I won't have to worry about income while I plan my next move. The worrying part is which direction to plan in. I'm in the difficult situation of being smart enough to do just about damned near anything I put my mind to. Trying to find something that I'll love doing for an extended period of time is hard.
I could go to college and get a degree and enter some sort of field of science or medicine. I'm interested in those but I don't know if my interest will help me jump through all of the hoops to do so. Or I can enter the trades, take advantage of my genetic alterations to do hard jobs for better pay than most can get. I could even do that for a couple of years until I get enough to buy a ship and license and start doing freight. There's really good money in that, but I wouldn't get to see my family that often unless I brought them with me.
I can even go into finances. When I was in my twenties I had worked at a bank as a teller and they almost immediately promoted me to banker. I liked helping people understand their money, but hated trying to sell them on stuff that they didn't really need. That was the last job I had before I up and joined the Corps, and where I met my wife.
After I finished my morning routine I did my knocking, making sure the rest of my squad was awake. Our official schedule is an 0500 wake-up, formation at 0600, PT at 07, and then gear check at 08. We did our gear check last night, so we could do the briefing at 08 instead.
The only ones I had to actually wake up was PFC Brint and Corpsman Yunk. Everyone else was already awake, either because they were gen-alt like me or because they'd been in so long their internal clocks woke them up naturally.
We formed up, did our head count, and started PT at 0630. Fifteen early to being fifteen early. Some complaints from the PFCs but they were disregarded. We started with stretches, then a brisk jog through the corridors. Then we did pushups, side straddle hops, crunches, and finally we came to weights. Weights are a favorite among most marines, but can be particularly dangerous with gen-alts involved.
Non-alts are not allowed to spot gen-alts under any circumstances. This was made part of the Uniform Code of Military Justice very quickly after the genetics program hit the fleet. Every marine is prideful, and without the out of it being against regs they'll try to lift 800 lbs off of a gen-alts chest and blow out their back. Meanwhile the gen-alt will be stuck with nearly a ton on their ribcage. That's not healthy to anybody, and had resulted in plenty on non-combat related casualties.
Everyone was paired with someone that could spot them and we began to lift. We were all getting a good workout when suddenly we felt the ship enter warp. A slight lurch and very faint feeling that could almost be called a tingle. If you didn't know what it was then you probably wouldn't pay it any mind. But we all knew what it was. Weights were racked and all eyes went to me.
"You know where we're goin' staffsarnt?" Int asked.
"Not a damned clue. We'll probably get told at our briefing," I said.
"Could put the monitors on," Yunk suggested.
I nodded at Gruff to go ahead as we felt the ship come out of warp. Same sensation but backwards. Hell of a feeling, but it's very fleeting and will only bother you if you focus on it too hard. Gruff got up and tapped one of the mirrors a couple of times, and it changed to an external view of the ship. I always thought this was a better idea than the glass windows you see on bougie shuttles.
"This looks like... Alpha Centauri, I'm pretty sure," CPL Chang chimed in.
"Yeah, there's the shipyards. But... hey sarnt could you activate the highlights?" LCPL Livingstone asked.
"I'm not your fucking remote, marine," SGT Gruff growled as he tapped the screen again.
"Yeah, there we go. We're definitely in Alpha Centauri. All the shipyards, and nowhere else are you gonna see that many... other ships... Wait..." Chang trailed off.
I looked at the screen a bit closer and it took a moment to realize that the ships that were highlighted weren't the typical civilian ships that you'd normally see. There were carriers and battleships, far more than there should be. Even if we had rendezvoused with the rest of Second Fleet there wouldn't be this many. Don't get me wrong, it's not like I could count them. But we were looking at our grouping plus three others, with a fuck ton of ships per grouping.
"Hey staffsarnt, you ever seen more than one fleet in the same place at the same time?" Gruff asked.
"Nope," I said.
"Yeah, me neither."
"What's going on?" PFC Rogers asked with a bit of fear in his voice.
Time to be a leader.
"Who gives a fuck? It ain't none of our damned business until it's made our business, marine," I said with a knifehand for emphasis and more than a little impatience. "Gruff, turn it back to mirror mode. The rest of you, back to sweating."
The rest of our workout was quiet. Nobody said a word even when we hit the showers. Nervous marines are a bad thing to be around. When someone who has been trained to efficiently end a life without hesitation gets nervous, so does everyone around them. This was evident by the silence from everyone that we passed. Either that or they knew more than we did and were nervous too.
We got to the briefing and I made certain everyone sat in the proper order. Highest to lowest by rank and alphabetical order, with top ranks up front. I glanced around. The entire company was here, all ten squads. Right around 130 marines. There was a low murmur in the room as we waited for the CO to take the podium. You could tell everyone was nervous, because it's normally about twenty decibels louder. Didn't usually get quiet until someone shouted...
"OFFICER ON DECK!"
Everyone shut up, stood up at attention, and saluted as our Battalion CO Colonel Hammerstein and Company CO Captain Michaels entered the room followed by some officers from the Navy. One of which was Captain Young, commander of the Liberty.
The other... If I remember my ranks right, is an admiral. Shit. The officers took the stage and returned our salute. The sound of 130 some-odd hands snapping back down was pretty satisfying.
"At ease, take your seats," Hammerstein began. "The current time is 0759, and we're beginning your mission brief. Good morning, Marines."
"GOOD MORNING, SIR!"
"First, introductions. You all know Captain Michaels. Hopefully," he laughed a little and continued with a gesture to the naval officers. "This is Captain Young of the USSS Liberty, and Admiral Archibald, commander of Second Fleet. They will be observing and assisting with this briefing. Oorah?"
A screen lit up behind the colonel with images of a grouping of alien ships.
"We'll begin with some context. This is the Republic. Or their ships, rather. Sixteen days ago one of their ships performed a blind warp into Sol after taking heavy damage and began emitting an SOS. That ship is the Republic Space Vessel Lowelana, which means something like 'Fights with Honor'," he began.
The screen changed to show different alien ships, including technical schematics.
"This is the Omni-Union. While the U-triple-S Thanatos and U-triple-S Valor were attempting to rescue the RSV Lowelana, two OU destroyers entered Sol and attacked the Valor. These destroyers were terminated with prejudice. Oorah?"
"During the, very brief, fight the Valor accepted a hail from one of the vessels, assuming they were surrendering and begging aid. The Valor came under cyberattack and briefly lost control of their systems, nearly firing upon the Lowelana before their crew could be rescued. Thankfully AI Tim was aboard to aid with the rescue and was able to fend off the attack. It was at this point we were able to determine that the Omni Union is a Virtual Intelligence Collective. VIC. A soon to be fitting acronym, oorah?"
"Soon after the crew of the Lowelana was rescued, a small fleet of twenty OU ships entered Sol and began attacking. The Valor was able to escape the ambush and took out six OU ships before returning to the Thanatos. They would have taken out more, but the Omni Union deployed a warp disruption technology dissimilar to what we've seen before. The Thanatos deployed its other frigates, which cleaned up the rest of this fleet. Ten days ago we made diplomatic contact with the Republic and they pledged a defense fleet for Sol. Seven days ago, the Omni Union attacked Sol again with over 500 ships. Part of tenth fleet had been deployed to Sol for defense and was able to successfully defend the system. Oorah?"
"Since then Fourth Fleet has taken over the defense of Sol and Republic forces have arrived to fortify that defense. Admiral Archibald will take it from here," Colonel Hammerstein finished.
The colonel and the admiral exchanged salutes as Archibald took the podium.
"Good morning, Marines," the Admiral began with a smile.
"GOOD MORNING, SIR!"
"As some of you may have noticed, we are currently in Alpha Centauri along with Third, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth fleets. Intelligence has identified two things. The first is a target, an enemy stronghold that we plan to take for further intelligence gathering," he paused for a moment and then continued. "The second is damning evidence that the enemy is xenocidal."
The images on the screen changed to pictures of slaughtered aliens with tentacles for mouths and a deep silence fell over the room. Some marines were probably contemplating the stakes. Others were probably remembering the history of the Daluran war. Most were probably thinking of their families, like me. A beautiful wife, son, and daughter were waiting for me back on Elaris station. I felt my face involuntarily scowl at the thought of harm coming to them. I didn't have to look around to know that the faces surrounding me mirrored my own.
"I want to be absolutely clear, gentlemen. We won't know what to expect on the ground until we get in system, and we may not have enough time to share that intel with you before we have to get you on the dirt. This is going to be high stakes. But you've trained for this. You're the tip of the spear. There isn't a single trooper in this universe who can go toe to toe with a United Systems Marine. We don't know if the enemy can fear. We don't know if the enemy can feel pain. But you're sure as SHIT going to find out," Archibald said with a slam of his fist on the podium.
"Captain Michaels will outline your part of the mission," he said, and stepped away from the podium.
Captain Michaels stepped up to the podium and said, "I want your complete attention and silence until I finish with this brief. Our company has been tasked with escorting AI Omega planet side."
The screen changed from the dead aliens to an image of a black crate with antennas and such sticking out of it.
"These devices will be Omega's lifeline. The AI will be jumping from box to box as it attacks the Omni-Union inside their own systems. Omega will also be gathering much needed intel as it goes. These boxes MUST survive. Your mission is to escort the box to the surface, protect it, and escort it back to exfil. Omega will be in communication with you and may give further orders as things develop. If it says to move, you move. If it says to bark like a dog, it better be the best impression of a canine you've ever done. To be absolutely crystal clear, Omega outranks everyone in this room."
The screen changed once again to show a view of a solar system.
"There are five Omni-Union planets. OU Alpha, OU Bravo, OU Charlie, OU Delta, and OU Echo," he said as the screen highlighted each planet with their designation. "We'll be going in alphabetical order. Land, dig in, defend, and exfil. To piggyback off of what Admiral Archibald said, we don't have any intel regarding enemy defenses, positions, or even our landing zones. And we won't until we get there. The only thing that we do know is that the Omni Union DO have foot-soldiers that are mechanical and use directed energy weapons. These lasers are expected to be weaker than our own, but you'd be foolish to count on that. Omega will attempt to provide you with intel as we gain it, but remember that Omega has its own mission. Keep your head down and blow off the enemy's, and we'll all go home happy. This operation will commence when our fleets are back up to full strength. We'll let you know before we jump."
The screen shut off and Captain Michaels stepped away from the podium. Colonel Hammerstein stepped back up to the podium.
"MARINES! ATTEN HUH!"
All of us stood to the position of attention, like we'd done so many times before.
Previous First Bonus Content and Early Access to Chapters available on Patreon New chapter every Monday on Patreon and Friday on Reddit!
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to HFY [link] [comments]
2023.03.24 13:14 Doorgunner_CH53 Samsung C480W Druckbild Fett
Seit kurzem ist mir aufgefallen, das die Ausdrucke meines Laser Druckers irgendwie Fett wirken. Nicht fein sondern echt dick. Wenn es Texte sind kann man das ja noch verkraften, aber wenn man zb versucht QR Codes oder Barcodes auszudrucken wird’s schwer das ein Lesegerät die noch auswerten kann und selbst bei Bildern oder Farben wirkt es total Überladen.
Ich hab echt keine Ahnung woran das liegt und finde im Menü des Druckers auch keine Möglichkeit den Ausdruck zu Kalibrieren. Hat jemand evtl ne Idee?
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2023.03.24 13:08 Fun-Island4141 Just finished my board exams and would like to start learning about stuff. I had computer science in 12th and need advice. I don't know what to learn next. Please forgive If I write anything stupid in this post.
I know these topics in Python from what I studied in school - Tuples, Dictionaries, Stacks, File Handling etc, basically a lot of stuff in the syllabus. But the problem is the syllabus was incomplete and scattered, many topics were deleted this year.
So basically I know "Python" but there's probably a lot of topics that got missed. But I still want to make some use of it.
I also know the SQL
of school level. And some networking concepts like topologies and full-forms of some protocols.
Most of the syllabus was just random problems
like random output-based questions and maintain a list of books etc etc without any gui, there was only one actual project
where I built an app using Tkinter ( even that I stole from the Internet as I was busy with science subjects :(
). I also ask random questions to ChatGPT but that's the extent of my knowledge of NLP/AI. How can I make use of my half-assed knowledge from having CS as a subject in boards ( CBSE )?
All I know is 4 years later I just want to be skilled, knowledgeable and have a good job. And this layoff news is pushing me more to start from now.
I have the most "interest" in Cybersecurity ( as my dad recently fell victim to a UPI QR Code Scam I don't want it to happen to my family ever again or to anyone else
), although I had interest in science stream too and It didn't turn out well to me, so I don't really trust interest much now unless I know how it works. Also I'm scared of AI/ML as someone told me you need to do atleast a Masters or PhD to do something in that field. Also networking/cloud computing etc looks interesting to me since it looks like a ceritfication-based field where I can get ceritfied from some big company like amazon/microsoft and get a job? ( I have NO IDEA about any of this in person this is just things I've seen or heard or just know from reading random stuff online, please forgive me )
Here's the syllabus -
11th ( check 11th part only ): Computer_Science_SrSec_2021-22.pdf (cbseacademic.nic.in)
12th ( Check 12th part only ): Computer_Science_SrSec_2022-23.pdf (cbseacademic.nic.in)
Types of Questions we had to solve: ComputerApplication-SQP.pdf (cbseacademic.nic.in) Tl:Dr
- I would like to continue learning more of what I learned in 11th/12th CS, Python, Networking, SQL etc but from a job point of view. I'm also open to learning something entirely different, I mentioned these because I already studied them in school.
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to developersIndia [link] [comments]
2023.03.24 13:01 AutoModerator Weekly Japan Travel Information and Discussion Thread - March 24, 2023
This discussion thread has been set up by the moderators of /JapanTravel. Please stay civil, abide by the rules, and be helpful. Keep in mind that standalone posts in the subreddit must still adhere to the rules, and quick questions are only welcome here and in /JapanTravelTips.
Japan Entry Requirements and COVID Requirements
- Japan has resumed visa-free travel for ordinary passport holders of 68 countries (countries listed here).
- If you are a passport holder of a country not on the visa exemption list, you will still need to apply for a visa. All requirements are listed on the official website.
- Tourists need to have three doses of an approved vaccine or submit a negative COVID-19 test result ahead of their departure to Japan. For the vaccine doses, there are no timing requirements as long as you have three doses of an approved vaccine (see top of page 10 here).
- Tourists entering Japan should get their COVID document checking process, Immigration process, and Customs process fast tracked by filling out Visit Japan Web. This will generate a QR code for Immigration, a QR code for Customs, and a blue "Review completed" screen for COVID fast track (no QR code) once approved. (See below for more info.)
- Travelers connecting through Japanese airports and staying airside for their connection do not need to complete any visa, entry, or COVID procedures.
Japan Tourism and Travel Updates
- As of March 13, 2023, mask usage is left up to personal choice and preferences in many circumstances. The government recommendation will only remain in place for medical institutions, nursing homes, and crowed buses/trains. That said, keep in mind that private establishments can still ask that you wear a mask to enter, and you should be respectful of those types of restrictions. Additionally, Japanese airlines still require masks in most circumstances.
- Shops and restaurants often do temperature checks or require you to use hand sanitizer when entering a building, although you won’t typically be asked for any proof of vaccination.
- Some shops, restaurants, and attractions have reduced hours. We encourage you to double check the opening hours of the places you’d like to visit before arriving.
- There have been some permanent or extended closures of popular sights and attractions, including teamLab Borderless, Shinjuku Robot Restaurant, and Kawaii Monster Cafe. Check out this thread for more detail.
- If you become ill while traveling, please see the instructions in this guide or contact the COVID-19 Consultation Center by phone.
Visit Japan Web Info and FAQs Visit Japan Web
(VJW) is an online document-checking system introduced in December 2022. It allows you to pre-enter all of your Immigration, Customs, and COVID vaccine/test information before arriving in Japan. To make the entry process as smooth as possible and prevent any issues, we recommend filling it out and obtaining the QR codes provided by the service.
Here are some frequently asked questions regarding filling out the VJW sections: Can I put multiple family members under the same Visit Japan Web account?
All adults should have their own VJW account. Family members on the same account should only be either minors or dependents incapable of filling it out on their own. How far in advance can I fill out Visit Japan Web?
Officially speaking, you can use Visit Japan Web for trips up until the end of the year following the current year. For instance, in February 2023, you can register a trip with a date up to December 2024. That said, your information will be wiped if you don't sign into Visit Japan Web at least once every 18 months. What flight number do I use?
Practically speaking, there's no real need to register more than a few months or weeks in advance, as the information gets reviewed and approved within hours or days.
You should use the flight number for the flight landing in Japan. So, for instance, if you have a flight from New York City to Seattle and then from Seattle to Tokyo, you use the flight number of the Seattle to Tokyo Flight. If you are on a codeshare flight, you can use either the carrier you purchased through, or the operating carrier. For instance, if you are on American Airlines #4065 and it codeshares with JAL #001, you can write either "AA 4065" or "JAL 001". What do I put down for my intended address? What do I do if I'm staying in multiple hotels or accommodations over the course of my trip?
You should use the address and contact information for your first hotel/hostel/Airbnb/etc. You don't need to provide multiple addresses. On the quarantine procedures page, it has a "Time remaining to complete registration: XXXXXX" notification, but I've already submitted my vaccine certificate and my screen is blue. What do I do?
You don't have to do anything. This timer is for submitting a test for approval, which you don't need to do if you submitted vaccine information. Basically, it's bad design/programming. Will I still get a "temporary visitor" stamp in my passport if I use VJW? I need it for the JR Pass and tax-free shopping!
Yes, you will still get a temporary visitor stamp in your passport. Tourists who fill out VJW still see an immigration officer at a manned immigration station and receive their stamp.
Quick Links for Japan Tourism and Travel Info
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2023.03.24 12:23 FicklePoultrys People destroying billboards of Samsung for introducing a QR code that is allegedly “blasphemous”.
2023.03.24 12:18 ThesisHazelMorgan Can you help?
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2023.03.24 12:14 Sea_Ad_6590 QR Code Scanning App Development Company Hire QR Scanner App Developers - App Development Company
2023.03.24 12:14 hambosambo Scanning QR payment codes with Thai banking apps?
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2023.03.24 11:55 AmadyuraSnake I'm a new Ayaka and Shenhe haver, and I'm very happy with these results!
| || |
As a disclaimer, although Kokomi and Kazuha are fully built and invested (I use them in other teams), my Ayaka has mid artifacts, Shenhe is A4 ascended but not leveled and her talents levels are below 6 (I'm broke on resources), so already getting 6 stars for the first two chambers of floor 12 was very impressive for me and I'm really enjoying playing this team!:D can't wait to play it when fully invested! submitted by AmadyuraSnake to AyakaMains [link] [comments]
2023.03.24 11:30 M4arint Prof. Em. Božanić: the Chakavian language should be included in elementary and high school education in the Chakavian speaking regions
Should the Chakavian language be included in school education? “ The Croatian standard language becomes speechless as soon as it approaches the sea” I see the recognition of the Croatian Chakavian language by the ISO organization and its getting an international code (CKM) as a living language of our world as an opportunity to raise awareness at the national level about the problem of the dying of local idioms that are still alive in Croatia. It is necessary to start the production of native reading and learning books focused on the Chakavian, Kajkavian and Štokavian vernacular languages, representative texts of the written and oral literature. Of all Croatian languages.
Professor Emeritus Joško Božanić
from the University of Split, director of the only scientific journal dedicated to the Chakavian language and a foremost authority in Croatian linguistics, in a big interview for Dalmacija Danas
, tells why a wing of the Croatian academia reacted by expressing negative emotions to the news that the Chakavian speech was recently recognized as a separate language from the Croatian standard language by the International Organization for Standardization ISO, the international scientific journal Ethnologue and the international organization SIL International (responsible for cataloging all the languages of humanity), basically all the most relevant linguistic institutions in the world.
Among other things, he explains how the Croatian standard language could have gone in a completely different direction if some centuries ago the Pope had not heeded the Zagreb bishop’s recommendation and ordered on June 23, 1633, to postpone the printing of the first Bible in “Illyrian” (this was how Croatian was known back then) and Latin. Božanić also answers the question of who is promoting the introduction of the Split dialect of the Chakavian language in all Split elementary and high schools as part of the local culture course.
He emphasizes that young people need to be taught that speaking their native “BESIDA / BESEDA” is not a mistake but a fundamental intangible cultural asset of our world and a great source of cultural richness for them and the country of Croatia.
Denying the significance of an important historical event The International Organization for Standardization ISO from Geneva included the Chakavian language in its list of living languages of the world in 2020. How did this resonate with Croatian linguists?
– The first reaction I saw in the newspaper was in Slobodna Dalmacija, which published an interview by Damir Šarac (February 2, 2023) with a local scholar, Professor Dunja Jutronić . She expressed the following controversial statement in regard to the news about the assignment of a standardization code to the Chakavian language by the ISO: “This choice is not relevant for either international or national linguistic science. Linguistic scientists consider both Chakavian and Kaikavian dialects to be “supra-dialects”
(a word made up by Yugoslav linguists to describe a uniquely balkan concept that doesn’t exist in other languages of the world, Ed.) with their own many sub-dialects, and they advocate for this through their scientific work but the status of an official – standardized – language is not a scientific, but a political category.
I cannot agree with some of these statements. First – because I simply do not see how the international codification of a Croatian idiom on the most prestigious international list of world languages could be irrelevant, unimportant.
Was the codification of the Croatian standard language by the same international institution in Geneva (International Standardization Organization – ISO) which happened on September 1, 2008 and which codified the Croatian official (standard) language under the code name ISO 693-3 [hrv] irrelevant? Back then the event was met with national jubilee.
Second – this is not about declaring an “official language” but a language. That’s an important difference. Languages can be official when they are standardized, such as the Croatian standard language, and Chakavian is a vernacular language, such as the Shtokavian vernacular language, which is based on the so-called Jekavian / Ijekavian southern Neoshtokavian dialect, which Croatian linguists have started to call Eastern Herzegovinian-Krajiški dialect only in the last twenty years, and that was standardized as the Croatian standard (official) language only at the end of the 19th century. Third – the term supra-dialect/narječje, which according to Akademijin Rječnik (33, 586) was introduced by Vuk S. Karadžić and his followers, the so-called vukovci
, as a translation of the Russian word [нарѣчие] in Croatian linguistic terminology as a dialect, can in Russian mean a local speech and dialect and a group of related dialects, but also a vernacular (non-standardized) language.
The term Chakavian language in fact means exactly the later – a vernacular language because in Croatia the standard Croatian Shtokavian language is the official language. And fourth – I agree with the position that the status of an official language is not a scientific but a political category, since the official language is the result of an agreement, convention, political decision. So it was also for the Croatian standard language.
All standard languages are artificial and not spontaneous like vernacular ones, because they are standardized by political decision and stylized by linguists and maintained through institutions. But it is a scientific fact at the same time that there is a Croatian Shtokavian vernacular language as well as the Chakavian and Kajkavian Croatian languages which are not standardized even though they were literary languages for centuries long before Shtokavian. The word vernacular comes from Latin. Vernaculus
means native, according to Latin verne – native slave, one who was born in the master’s house. According to the definition in Webster’s dictionary, vernacular is a language that is native to the people, as opposed to a literary one.
According to the article by Željko Rogošić in the weekly magazine Nacional (7/2/2023, 53-55) titled “A Croatian paradox: Chakavian was declared an independent language of the world
“, three prominent Croatian linguists, academics, dispute the significance of the international codification of the Croatian Chakavian language. Academician Josip Bratulić says: “I am not sure that declaring Chakavian an independent language will achieve anything
“, professor Silvana Vranić believes that “the Chakavian dialect cannot be isolated and viewed as a separate language
“, and professor Mira Menac-Mihalić believes that the decision on the codification of the Chakavian language “means nothing, because on that basis no one will give Croatia money to preserve the language
” and concludes: “… we are not talking about the Chakavian language, but Chakavian is part of the Croatian language system.
” Therefore, according to this the Chakavian dialect is not a language (which is defined as a system), but it is a language system within a language system that represents the Croatian standard language.
This idea of the Chakavian dialect as a system within a system is incorporated in the concept of the “three-narječje formula” by prof. emerit. Iva Lukežić from the University of Rijeka, according to whom the Croatian language is “unique in the world”. She says: “…the Croatian language should be used to define every idiom by which Croats communicated with each other through history and by which they communicate. This is the starting point and at the level of organic idioms, in dialectology, the Croatian language is defined as a sui generis complex language structure with three components of the abstract rank of supra-dialects, each made up of a certain number of components of a lower abstract rank of sub-dialects, and according to this three-supra-dialec formula, the Croatian language is unique in the world of languages
” (Appendix to the discussion on the genesis of Croatian supra-dialects, Fluminensia no. 1-2. 1996, p. 223).
Questioning this “three-supra-dialects formula” and the “uniqueness” of the Croatian standard language compared to all other languages of our world can get a person in trouble and to be labeled negatively, and is a direct result of the current very foggy scientific situation in the Croatian dialectology field.
Thus, recently we were able to read in a text of M.M. Letica titled “How to explain to dilettantes that Chakavian is not a language, but a dialect of the Croatian language
” the following words: “We should arm with facts, i.e. the one truth. And armed with it, resolutely attack the enemies of the Croatian language
” (Hrvatski tjednik, 9.2. 2023). Judge for yourself the weight and meaningfulness of such a statement about “dilettantes” and “enemies of the Croatian language” as written according to the author of that article.
Heretical thoughts about the Croatian language in a popular university textbook Recently, the Faculty of Philosophy in Split, together with the Literary Circle from Split, published your book “Vernacular Stylistics“, which was recognized the status of a university textbook. Therefore, it is intended to be used by students of Croatian studies. I assume that your book also deals with some issues of the relationship between the Croatian standard language and the vernacular languages, as you call them, Chakavian and Kaikavian, so I would like you to present to us the positions you represent in it, which concern this conversation.
– Yes, in 2019 I published the book “Vernacular Stylistics” as a university textbook for students and teachers of Croatian studies. My specialization is stylistics, and as I am also a dialectologist, I connected these two disciplines in an effort to analyze and interpret the stylistic wealth of various texts written in vernacular idioms, not only Chakavian, and not only literary ones.
This wealth of expressions is completely neglected because in our country dialectologists rarely deal with the stylistic level of expressions, and stylists ignore texts in non-standard idioms of the Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian vernaculars. But when we talk about this book of mine, it is interesting to say that in it I expressed some “heretical” views that have not caused, until today, any reaction from other professors.
This position of mine is opposite to the above mentioned reactions of other professors of linguistics, because I claim that the Croatian language is one system that cannot logically consist of three systems (Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian) and that all three Croatian language systems are actually three separate vernacular languages/systems.
In doing so, I follow the teachings of the most prominent Croatian linguist Josip Silić, who distinguishes between language as a system and language as a standard. As I said before, language as a standard is the result of the standardization process and as such the result of conventions, agreements, and the work of institutions, because it does not arise spontaneously in the speech practice of a narrow or wide local community.
Josip Silić says the following about this topic: “In conclusion, we can say that Shtokavian, Chakavian and Kajkavian nariječja are different (language) systems (…). They are therefore separate Croatian idioms, not dialects of one Croatian language. (this does not mean in any way that one narječje is less Croatian than the other). Therefore, it is wrong to speak of Chakavian and Kajkavian phenomena in the Croatian standard language as a dialectal phenomena, i.e. dialecticisms. Dialectisms are not phenomena in the Croatian standard language that come from the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects, but phenomena that they come from the Štokavian dialect.
Thus, Chakavian and Kajkavian are separate linguistic systems, not varieties of the Croatian standard language. Dialectal phenomena in standard Croatian can come only from the Shtokavian vernacular, which is the basis on which Croatian was standardized as an official language.
The Croatian father of the nation idea about the “bleating-speech” You were a member of the Council for the Normalization of the Croatian Standard Language. What is your experience of participating in the work of that Council?
– I participated in the second convocation of the Council for the Normalization of the Croatian Language, which was created at the invitation of the Minister of Science, Dragan Primorac in 2005, and lasted until 2012, when it was abolished by Minister Željko Jovanović. The president of the council was academician Radoslav Katičić. The topics discussed were mostly about spelling. Some conclusions about orthographic solutions have taken root in orthographic practice, and some suggestions have fallen away. I well remember the discussion about the accent norm, which caused a polemical tone considering the big divergence of accentuation speech practice between the Chakavian and Kajkavian speaking areas, and the Neoshtokavian accent norm, which got erroneously marked as purely rural pronunciation, despite being native to the 3 biggest cities in Croatia.
This split with the normative Neoshtokavian accentuation appeared mainly due to the realization of descending stresses on internal syllables or due to the omission of the transition of stress from the tonic word to the proclitic, which is the result of the influence of the Chakavian and Kaikavian accent systems.
Today, this practice of diverging is even more pronounced on radio and television, so that two accentual norms have come to life, one could almost say: the one that is prescribed, the Neoshtokavian one, and the one that is increasingly present in public communication in the media, and is the result of accent influence by Chakavian and the dominant Zagreb Kajkavian vernaculars into the standard Croatian language.
I remember well also other discussions, especially the one about the issue of the orthographic norm of writing neću / ne ću
or the question of the Ekavian realization of the so-called covered [ r] like in greška / grješka, vremena / vrjemena, strelica / strjelica
. I considered particularly absurd that the norm chosen deviated from linguistical rules, and only pursued to increase a (perceived) distance from the Serbian Ekavian standard.
Isn’t it ironic that in our time this hyper-Jekavianism is associated with the defense of the Croatian distinctiveness from the Serbian language, while Ante Starčević , the “father of the Croatian nation”, in the 19th century defended his Ekavian language from the Serbian Ijekavian language of Vuk Karadzic, calling it derogatorily “bleating-speech”, and describing Jekavian / Ijekavian pronunciation as “bleating” (I. Marković : Notes on the language of Ante Starčević, Filologija 71, Zagreb 2018).
On purism according to the Croatian maritime lexicon What is your attitude towards purism in Croatian linguistics?
– I dedicated a chapter to that topic in my book, because it also touches on the issue of linguistic identity on the lexical level. I will tell you right away that I am not a purist, although today we are all witnesses of the unstoppable penetration of English into all world languages, except for the languages of civilizations that have not yet reached the Internet. You mentioned my participation in the Council for the Normalization of the Croatian Language. I well remember the lively controversy surrounding the idea of croatizing English IT terminology. I then compared that effort with the hypothetical idea of building a dam on the Amazon River. Namely, I am convinced that the influx of English into all world languages is inevitable and unstoppable. On that occasion, I mentioned my own experience in working on the dictionary of a small island dialect, my Komiža dialect, whose dictionary I have been systematically working on for thirty years.
I said on that occasion that in my Komiža dictionary, which contains twenty thousand glosses, about seventy percent of all nouns are of alloglottic (foreign) origin. But all those words that arrived on the island by sea were adapted – accentually, creatively, and morphologically adapted to Komižan speech. Words adapted in this way became our own words, and not foreign words or loanwords, as many Croatian linguists call them. We did not borrow them with the intention of returning them one day when we invent our own words for the concepts they describe.
No, these words have become ours and lived in our speech for many centuries. This vocabulary is now our intangible heritage, a part of the Croatian national identity created on our shores of the Adriatic sea, in our life shared with that sea. But unfortunately they are ideologically uninteresting to our normative lexicographers.
Some of our linguists consider purism to be synonymous with culture. I wonder in what kind of linguistic non-culture
I was born and spoke, being that my language was full of words that came to us by sea lines for centuries, and without which we Croats would not know how to talk about the sea at all.
There are two types of purism: exogenous
(rejection of words originating from other ethnos) and endogenous
(rejection of words from non-standard idioms of the same ethnos). I would like to ask those linguists who talk about the three-supra-dialectal Croatian language and the interweaving of three dialects within the Cha-Kaj-Shtokavian formula, how come that the language of the Croatian Vukovci
, who reject almost completely the Kajkavian and Chakavian lexicons in order to prevent the “contamination” of the Shtokavian lexical standard, is still at work to this day.
How come it was only at the end of the twentieth century (in 1990) with the appearance of Anić’s Dictionary of the Croatian language, the first ever purely Croatian dictionary, many names of some commonly known sea fish enter the Croatian dictionaries for the first time? How is it that an entire segment of the national culture, the maritime, coastal and island one, is deleted from the whole of the national culture in our lexicography so that when the Croatian standard (Shtokavian) language approaches the sea – it becomes completely speechless and wordless?
At the same time, it should be underlined that the Croatian nation inhabits a coast almost 6,000 kilometers long, a water area that covers two-thirds of the Adriatic sea and has a maritime culture that is more than a thousand years old. It is the only Slavic nation in the world, which is the guardian of the Mediterranean cultural and linguistic universe.
Branka Tafra, a full-time professor at Croatian Studies in Zagreb, says the following: “The rule of correctness for Croatian was chosen to be the Neoshtokavian Ijekavian dialect, and all words were drawn out of that mold. Back in the day the Croatian vukovci received the authority and power to determine what was to be classified as correct and what was not, and all in accordance with theNeoshtokavian canon (…) Although the vukovci are not usually spoken of as purists, they also practiced a form of purism by persecuting Kajkavisms, Chakavisms, and all non-Neoshtokavian words.
” This kind of purism against Chakavisms and Kajkavisms was also brought forward by the language policy of the NDH, which, with its idea of a single Croatian Shtokavian language, had a negative relationship not only toward the non-Neoshtokavian lexicon, but also toward all non-Neoshtokavian literature. I would like to hear your opinion on this attitude towards dialectal literature since you are also known as a dialect poet?
– Dialectal poetry has nowadays no place in Croatian poetry anthologies. This attitude towards literature written in the vernacular Croatian languages, Chakavian and Kajkavian, has been maintained to this very day.
Just as the standardization of the Neoshtokavian idiom at the end of the 19th century brought the Chakavian and Kajkavian vernacular languages from an equal position to a s subordinate one toward the Shtokavian standard, so literature based on these vernacular languages received the depreciatory attribute of epichoric, regional, indigenous literature. As something filled with sentiment of attachment to some past states, provincial speeches, memories. As such, it is almost completely excluded from the corpus of the national Croatian literature, and its authors have no place in the national literary pantheon unless they legitimized themselves with other literary works in the standard language.
In most anthologies of Croatian poetry, the poems of even our best and most genius dialectal poets are completely omitted. The recent anthology by Tonka Maroević “Svjetlaci – Croatian poetry of the third post-war (1996 – 2019)
” presents in the introduction the author’s explanation for his omission of poets who write poetry in dialects. He says: “I believe that songs in the dialect belong to their own language systems, within which they can be measured and categorized, and that it is inappropriate and violent to anthologize them within a whole composed in the standard Croatian language.
” With Maroević’s explicit removal of dialectal poetry from an anthology named “Croatian poetry
” in its title, his words above could have two meanings: First, that dialectal poetry that is created in Croatia in non-standard idioms is not Croatian, because only poetry that is Croatian is anthologized, and if it is Croatian, yes, since it is dialectal, it does not meet the value criteria (of the author of the anthology) for inclusion in the corpus of representative Croatian poetry.
Or second: phrase “Croatian poetr
y” in the title is not limited in terms of meaning by anything except the time reference in the title of the anthology – the year 1996 as the starting year and the year 2019 as the final year and, of course, the anthologist’s value judgment – his selection criteria.
According to this interpretation, the term “Croatian poetry” does not include dialectal poetry precisely because those are written in non-standard idioms, which means that the criterion for belonging to the corpus of Croatian poetry is that it is written in the standard Croatian language of Neoshtokavian. Therefore, even if it met the artistic criteria for inclusion in the national anthology, it could not be included because it was not written in the standard national language.
Maroević’s position on the status of dialectal poetry is not very different from Antun Šoljan’s one from year 1965. Šoljan claimed that: “…in one so little literature, the scattering of talents on several linguistic paths (meaning: on several versifications, on several traditions and several tendencies) can be tragic. It seems to me that today the only way forward for a dialectal writer is not to stick to an inanimate or underdeveloped language, but to merge his native idiom with a literary one and thus fertilize and enrich the linguistic matrix”
(Three-year chronicle of Croatian and Serbian poetry 1960-1962, Naprijed, Zagreb 1965: 41). This idea about endangering the “linguistic matrix” by writing in vernacular Croatian languages indicates the same kind of understanding of the national cultural monolith, which is threatened by “dispersion”, disunity, endangerment. I, on the other hand, see in these diversity the unique richness of Croatian culture, its diversity, and as a writer I perceive language as a space of freedom, games and linguistic wealth that includes living oral idioms, all vernacular organic speeches that preserve the collective memory of the Croatian people and the millennial work of language and speech.
The Pope against printing the Bible in Latin and Shtokavian On several occasions, you have mentioned Croatian vukovci, their influence on the process of standardization of the Croatian language.
– Their influence is present to this day, because even today the door towards the Chakavian and Kajkavian languages is closed, as I already mentioned. The influence of Vuk S. Karadžić was decisive in the choice of the vernacular Neoshtokavian basis for the standardization of the Croatian language. The dialect of the Shtokavian vernacular known colloquially as the “southern dialect” of eastern Hrecegovina was not chosen by chance.
This chosen dialect, which was a common dialect also to the Serbian language, became the basis for the standardization of the Croatian language. The founder of the Phonetics Department of the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb, Professor Ivo Škarić says the following: “Thus, all epithets for the standard language began to be attributed to that chosen Neoshtokavian dialect, with the consequence that all non-Neoshtokavian idioms began to be considered less valuable despite the natural equality among all organic speeches (as well as among peoples) and the fact that some speeches rejected during the selection, especially Kajkavian and Chakavian, had an extremely rich cultural and literary tradition. As an immanent property of every standard, Neoshtokavian moved psycho-sociologically from a horizontal relationship with other speeches to a vertical, hierarchical one, where it was adorned with all the then valid epithets of a literary language: superiority, class , cultural elitism. The contemporary speakers of Neoshtokavian as an organic idiom, boasted then of self-satisfaction that they are already well-spoken by birth and that others speak “objectively” in an ugly and funny way”
(I. Škarić – Hrvatski govori, Školska knjiga 2006: 19-20).
The process of standardization of the Croatian language toward a Neoshtokavian vernacular base began in the first half of the 17th century with the translation of the Bible by the Roman Jesuit Bartolo Kašić, originally from the island of Pag, author of the first grammar of the Croatian language (Institutionum linguae Illyricae libri duo,
Rome, 1604). For his translation, he chose Latin and the folk Shtokavian language of the Dubrovnik region, relying on the language of the Dubrovnik literary tradition. But his attempt was stopped by a letter from then Zagreb bishop Franjo Ergelski to Pope Urban VIII.
The bishop recommended that the printing of Kašić’s Bible be postponed. The Pope accepted the bishop’s recommendation and ordered on June 23, 1633, to postpone the printing of the Bible in the Illyrian
language. That delay meant de facto a ban, and the main reason for that ban was that it was translated into the Dubrovnik dialect (“Ragusina vulgari lingua
“), which will not be understandable to all Croats, and in Latin script, not Glagolitic or Cyrillic, which were used by Croats at that time. And so the printing was “postponed” for 367 years, when the conditions for the printing of this capital work of the Croatian written word were finally met, but not in Croatia, in Germany.
So the resistance to printing came from Zagreb, out of the suspicion that Kašić’s Bible translated into Shtokavian speech of the Dubrovnik region would not be understandable to Croats in other regions and because of the choice of the wrong script – Latin. If Pope Urban VIII did not accept the recommendation of Zagreb bishop Franjo Ergelski, but the advice of the Sacra Congregatio de propaganda fide
that suggested Kašić’s Bible be printed, probably the process of standardizing the Croatian language would have followed a different path and the Croatian language would, I believe, be quite different from the one with which I am now answering the questions posed to you.
The Croatian terminological and linguistic fogginess Do you expect resistance from politicians inclined to unification and centralization of everything, disinclined to any diversity, regionalization and the like? What kind of argument do they use to defend their positions?
– Croatian linguistics is strongly influenced by politics, to such an extent that even some of the greatest Croatian linguists in their scientific works and public speeches changed their initially declared positions on the Croatian language in order to harmonize them with the dominant political narrative. It is a huge defeat for science. I remember a great national celebration when, on September 1, 2008, in Geneva, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) assigned the code to Croatian Shtokavian and accepted it as a standard language on the list of world languages. It was a national feast. When this same institution assigned the code to the Chakavian language in 2020, the event was first hushed up in the Croatian media, and then two years later, negative evaluations of that act appeared. Language is the most important symbol of ethnicity in our country, and the romantic idea of ethnicity popular in the 19th century, which is still alive today, needs a community of one “blood, soil and language”. At the same time, Croatian politics and Croatian linguistics are burdened even today by the common Neoshtokavian vernacular basis of the Croatian and Serbian languages, which is an indisputable scientific fact. The declaration of Croatian as the only triune (that is tri-dialectic) language, “unique in this respect in the whole world”, as Prof. emerita Iva Lukežić claims, is a politically useful, but totally unscientific attitude favored by the Croatian terminological and linguistic fog.
Chakavian at the top of UNESCO’s intangible heritage list Did this recognition open the door to saving the Chakavian language from extinction through the Croatian education system or is this an illusion in itself? What should be done to teach and nurture the Chakavian language outside of the optional subject in elementary and high schools?
– The world’s linguistic diversity is today more threatened than its biological diversity, but it is just as important as biological diversity for human survival. “Language is what is most human in a person,
” says the French linguist Claude Hagège, author of the book “Stop the extinction of languages
” (Disput, Zagreb 2005). The death of any language, no matter how small, is also the death of a whole world that existed in it and through it
UNESCO’s Paris Convention on Intangible Cultural Heritage (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
) from 2003 defined the list of intangible heritage of the world, and at the top of that list is language (oral tradition and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage. It is about language as a carrier of intangible cultural heritage. By the end of this century, half of the 5,000 languages alive today will disappear from planet Earth if current trends continue, says Hagège.
I see the recognition of the Chakavian language and its receiving of an international code as a living language of the world as an opportunity to raise awareness at the national level of the problem of autochthonous dying languages that are still alive in Croatia today. It is necessary to start the production of native reading books with Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian vernacular languages, that is, with representative texts of written and oral literature. I made such a digital book for the children and young people of the island of Vis as part of the national cultural asset preservation program “Cokavski govori otoka Visa
”. This type of digital readings should be made for Split as well, based on the very rich literature available in the Split dialect of Chakavian.
Introducing the Split dialect of Chakavian in all Split schools
The association “Marko Uvodić Splićanin for the research and preservation of the Split Chakavian language
” fought, on the initiative of its president Jadranka Mardešić Komac, for the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia to issue a decision in 2013 declaring the “Split speech (Split Chakavian language)” a national intangible cultural asset. The same association, together with the Split local section of the Čakavski Sabor, has been trying to fight for the introduction of Split speech in all Split primary schools as part of the cultural program for several years.
The councilor Damir Barbir even asked the following parliamentary question during a session of the City Council held on February 16, 2023: “Does the City of Split want to support the initiative that the Split speech, as a most important and most endangered cultural property according to the UNESCO Paris Convention from 2003, and as a national cultural heritage according to the decision of the Ministry of Culture and Media of the Republic of Croatia, to introduce it as a subject in the curricula of primary and secondary school education, and to provide funds for the financing of that program, which should also include the creation of a ‘Reading book of the Split Chakavian language’ According to the information of representative Damir Barbir, the mayor of Split, Prof. Ivica Puljak, Ph.D., responded positively to the question, and the official decision of the Split City Council is awaited.
A virtual living museum of the Chakavian language from Pelješac to the west coast of Istria How do you plan to take advantage of the newly acquired status as an internationally recognized language with its own language code?
– The Čakavski Sabor
, an organization which today has 25 sections all over Croatia and was founded in 1969 in Žminj, and the journal of the Literary Circle in Split “Čakavska rič
“, which has been published for fifty years as the only scientific journal in Croatia and in the world dedicated to the research of the Čakavian speech, gave so far the greatest contribution to the preservation of the Chakavian region from Pelješac to the west coast of Istria.
On the occasion of this international recognition of the Croatian Chakavian language, I intend to send an initiative letter to the Čakavski Sabor
in Žminj to initiate the procedure for the registration the Croatian Chakavian language in the UNESCO Red Book of Endangered Languages for Europe and in the UNESCO Atlas of the world’s Languages in danger which contains 2,460 languages from around the world, through the support of the Ministry of Culture and Media of the Republic of Croatia, its Directorate for International Cultural Cooperation, the Service for UNESCO.
The red book already contains five registered languages from Croatia (with code characters) from Croatia (Istriot, Istro-Romanian, Venetian, Ladin and Romani).
This is the first step that must be taken in order for us to be able to fight and to get the possibility of launching projects under the EU funds for research, valorization, education and preservation of the Chakavian language, with an emphasis on the possibility of its digitization, which is imperative at this moment. This means networking between many Chakavian speeches, creating a common database of all written texts, books, audio records and videos, networking all glossaries and dictionaries between them. In other words: we are launching an initiative to create a Virtual Living Museum of the Chakavian language from Pelješac to the west coast of Istria.
Such an idea requires the energy of young people, who have yet to learn that their native BESIDA / BESEDA is not a mistake but an intangible cultural asset of the world. Anecdotes about the life and death of the Komiža speech On February the 10th of this year, you held a lecture at the Marko Marulić Library in Split entitled “The Future of the Croatian Chakavian Language”. I would like to conclude our conversation with your answer to the question of what is the future of the Chakavian language.
– I will start my answer with two anecdotes. The first is the one I heard from our famous director Hrvoj Hribar, who some ten years ago in Komiža sat at a cafe on the Komiža waterfront with his then ten-year-old son. It was winter time when only Komiža people sit on the terrace, because there are no tourists at that time. When they finished their drinks, the father called the waitress to pay, and then the son whispered to him: “Dad, you should pay in euros here, don’t you hear how they speak?
The second one is the one I told during the public lecture “The Future of the Chakavian Language
” in Split. It happened recently, when I boarded a bus from Komiža to Vis. The bus was full of primary school children from Komiža who were going to Vis, where they have organized some free school activities – football and music. When I took my place in the bus, I carefully listened for a while to the children’s to see if I could recognize any part of the Komiža speech, but I didn’t manage to hear a single one. I then stood up like a teacher and asked loudly, to silence the roar and attract their attention, if any of them speaks Komiški
… A single boy quietly told me that he speaks Komiški. When I asked him “how come you don’t speak Komiški here on the bus?
“, he replied that he only speaks komiški at home, and that he doesn’t speak komiški among his peers “because they would laugh at him
This is the reality of the state of the Komiža Cokavian
speech, probably the best-preserved Chakavian speech in Dalmatia. This is also the answer about the future of the Chakavian language.
In those past ten years, a dramatic change took place. I, who have been researching the Komiža dialect for more than fifty years, can competently say that I am a witness to the rapid death of one of the most well-preserved Chakavian dialects, the research of which I devoted my life. Today, the organic idiom of the Chakavian language cannot be expected to maintain its basic communicative function. Such an expectation is unrealistic.
How to save the Chakavian language
However, it is imperative that through the education system, starting from kindergarten to high school, we raise, encourage and nurture awareness of the native language as an intangible cultural heritage by which we recognize our own selves.
That we understand it as a most important element of our identity, because language is what is most human in a person
. Education is the only tool left to us. The task of raising awareness of organic speech, dialect as a fundamental cultural value, and not a sign of provinciality, rigidity, grammatical mistakes, is the most difficult task of the educational system.
When it comes to the Chakavian speaking region, it is especially important to highlight the vast area of national culture that remained on the margins of the interests of Croatian standardologists in the 19th and 20th centuries, namely the maritime culture imbued with millennial experience of the sea and encounters with other Mediterranean cultures and languages.
This thousand-year-old linguistic heritage is not someone else’s, but an authentic and indigenous Croatian heritage, without which the Croatian language is poor for one very important function in the area of its linguistic superstructure.
It is time for the Croatian standard language to open up to its vernacular languages and accept them as equal. It is one of the most important ways to ensure their survival.
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2023.03.24 11:19 Distinct_Ad_7114 How to Build Successful Connections with QR Codes for Networking Events
2023.03.24 11:15 Key_Level_6554 Can a dog have Down Syndrome?
Like humans, dogs have faced many health conditions and problems. Sometimes, such disabilities have been produced in canines, which is similar to Down syndrome. But we cannot call them exactly Down syndrome. Dogs often suffer from diseases and have genetic abnormalities.
Have you noticed any symptoms in your dog and have been thinking can a dog have Down syndrome? Today,
we will discuss here all the symptoms, cures, and treatments of this disorder.
What is Down Syndrome?
Every living organism’s cell has a nucleus that has genetic material (genes). Genes are found on the chromosomes carrying genotypic codes. However, chromosome quantity is different from one body to one another.
Down syndrome is an abnormality of chromosomes. It is due to trisomy of all or part of the chromosomes 21.
Can Dogs have Chromosomal Disorders?
Genetics plays a vital role in health.
According to scientists and veterinarians, Down syndrome has been found in chimpanzees, but there is no evidence in dogs yet. Actually, dogs have genetic disorders.
Human cells have 23 chromosome pairs, whereas dogs have 39 chromosome pairs. Due to any disorder, when a person has 47 chromosomes, it will be the reason for Down syndrome. In the same way, when chromosomes turn 78 in dogs. At that time, some similar symptoms of Down syndro
me are produced in dogs due to genetic abnormalities.
Usually, a human has two copies of chromosomes in a cell. Sometimes a third copy of the chromosome develops and produces disabilities. This genetic disorder is called Down syndrome or Trisomy 21. It is a very common disorder in humans, but there is no evidence in canines.
Can a Dog have Down Syndrome?
If you are in doubt about Can you have a Down syndrome dog? So relaxed because this disorder did not been found in dogs yet. The disease diagnosis system of humans is much better than animals. Veterinarians do not have such a testing system that can diagnose Down syndrome in animals. It may be due to other similar genetic disorders.
Dogs with Down Syndrome Symptoms.
There is no testing system for Down syndrome in animals. Only diagnosed with similar genetic disorders.
But typically, canine Down syndrome presents unique signs like:
· Week muscles.
· Palm crease.
· Abnormal face feature.
· Short body parts.
· Large protruding tongue.
· Laziness in doing an action.
· Blindness or eye problems.
· Growth hormone deficiency.
· Shorter life span
· Poor Hair or fur condition
Genetic Disorders in Dogs
Actually, dogs have genetic disorders, but they do not have Down syndrome.
Pituitary Dwarfism in Dogs.
· It’s a heredity disorder. Some breeds of dogs, like Spitz, Corgis, German Shepherds, Weimaraners, Basset Hounds, Saarloos Wolfdogs, and Dachshunds, are more prone to Pituitary Dwarfism.
· When the pituitary gland cannot produce thyroid stimulatory and growth hormones, disorders occur at that time. The hormone of growth does not work properly in this disorder.
· Pituitary Dwarfism will cause bulging eyes and small legs, kidney failure, tumors or cysts, infections, spinal problems, a Long body, a short jaw, poor coat condition, baldness, shortened life span, etc.
· Achondroplasia is an example of Pituitary Dwarfism disorder. At the age of 2 months, the dog's growth stops and cannot grow well. Their bones remain short. Proper treatment, like hormone therapy, provides your dog with a better and longer life.
Hypothyroidism in Dogs.
- The reason for this rare disorder is a deficiency of hormones that release from the thyroid gland.
- Hypothyroidism disorder symptoms are short limbs, poor muscle tone, large tongue, slow growth, cold intolerance, slow heart rate, bald hair, lack of desire to exercise, and weight loss. Genetic disorders are treatable but not curable. In this situation, oral administration can help us to improve dogs’ health.
- Thyroid replacement hormone doses are given to dogs for treatment.
Heart Defect (Congenital) in Dogs.
Congenital heart defects develop due to spinal fluid consistently stored inside and outside the brain. Sometimes it may be slow. But it can be dangerous. However, early diagnosis and treatment increase the level; of survival.
Some symptoms are shortness of breath, Inability to exercise, Coughing, Weakness, and growth issues.
Treatment depends on the symptoms and condition of animals with Down syndrome. In More situations, medications and supplements help in curing.
How to Care and Cure for a Down syndrome Dog?
- This genetic disorder is rare in dogs, but when it appears in puppies, you can consult a veterinarian. If you have noticed any symptoms such as abnormality. At that time, they will guide you about the diagnosis plan to observe your dog and then recommend treatment.
- If your dog has pain, you can use pain killer to give them relief.
- Possibly avoid antibiotics because they also destroy good bacteria.
- Give them a healthy diet that contains high protein and amino acids.
- You can use appetites like ginger, alfalfa, and fennel.
- Exercise keeps your dog active and energetic. It may help dogs to be strong and healthy.
- Sometimes Dogs with Down syndrome can be very fearful of anything around them. Whenever you notice that your dog has an intense fear of something, you should soothe them by hand.
Can animals have Down syndrome?
The answer is no. but some dogs have some genetic disorders in heredity which look like Down syndrome.
What do animals look like with Down syndrome?
Poor growth, problems in hearing, sight, and skin, abnormal facial features, poor muscle, and delayed mental development are some signs of animals with Down syndrome.
The fact is that, such as like humans, dogs have different levels of learning and understanding. Some are protectors, while others are lovely companions. In the same way, dogs have different health conditions.
It’s very stressful for pet owners when their dog has any unusual behavior or Down syndrome symptoms. Don’t worry, it’s a genetic disorder. Now think about what you can do to give them a healthier life. Simply go to a vet for better diagnosis and treatment.
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2023.03.24 11:11 alinamorse Blockchain Wallet Development - Potential Future of Digital Assets
An encoded computer application or software dedicatedly for cryptocurrency trades is the Blockchain Wallet, which allows the users to store all kinds of crypto wallet at one place. This is purely for accessing the cryptos instantly. This makes a way to send and receive any digital assets via QR codes. As the features are limitless in Blockchain Wallet it's being an eye catcher among the crypto traders. This leads many entrepreneurs to reach Blockchain Wallet Development company like Maticz Technologies.
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2023.03.24 11:00 No_Examination_3852 QR code for 2 TF tickets
2023.03.24 09:42 Heclalava StashApp Stellar Cannacoin Airdrop
2023.03.24 09:42 Heclalava StashApp Stellar Cannacoin Airdrop